1983, Perth, Australia

Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Perth, Australia, 1983

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About The Perth Conference


The second International Symposium on Controlled Atmosphere Grain Storage held in Perth, Wes tern Australia, was organised by Co-operative Bulk Handling Limited and the Australian Grain Institute Incorporated in collaboration with the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation and Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.

This followed the first Symposium held in Rome in May 1980 organised by Assoreni. During discussion in Rome, several participants expressed the view that the next meeting should cover more problem loaded aspects of controlled atmosphere storage and disinfestation of grains, gas tight facilities, sealing practices, inert gas production and high moisture grain storage. Dr Shejbal in his preface to the proceedings manual recalled these views and expressed the hope that his Symposium would be followed elsewhere in the world to permit a further diffusion of this environment – friendly, economical and safe preservation technique in modern storage facilities.

This was the call that Co-operative Bulk Handling Limited responded to when this Symposium was organised and leads to its title – “Practical Aspects of Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Grain Storages”. As our Chairman Mr. H W Gayfer stated during his Key note address, the reasons we believed we were in the most favorable position to conduct this Symposium were :

  1. Our year round climate is ideal for the development of grain insects.
  2. As 95% of our produced grain is exported our control standards must be of high order.
  3. C.S.I.R.O. officers have developed their research into C.A. Storage to the commercial application stage.
  4. A National Committee of Bulk Handling Authorities and C.S.l.R.O. had combined their resources throughout Australia for the development of sealing techniques.
  5. C.B.H. Ltd had realised that unless the method could be applied to existing storages as well as new storages its potential was seriously diminished.

Considerable funds had been allocated by C.B.H. Ltd for the application of these techniques, sufficient to provide 1.5 million tonnes of sealed storages at the completion of the then current programme.

As this was to be a practical symposium a field trip to visit sites in various stages of the sealing exercise was a necessary part of the demonstration process. This was organised as part of the Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation Week. Further, to provide coverage of the broad aspects of grain handling, storage, transport and quality control as an added attraction to visitors undertaking the long journey to Perth in a depressed economic climate, a second week was made available.

270 participants from 28 countries attended the Symposium and I have yet to see a more convivial, a more totally committed group of people interchanging freely, giving and receiving knowledge and experience.

The major gap yet to be covered in Controlled Atmosphere Grain Storage is its compatibility with grain of very high moisture content. Such aspects could not be demonstrated in Australia by virtue of our climate and demonstration of theories is necessary. This, to some extent limits the ideal geographic zone for the holding of the next C.A.F. Symposium. To this end our International Steering Committee have chosen to remain as a body for the purpose of aiding the promotion of the system and guiding the selection of the next venue.

My appreciation is extended to all those organising committees within C.B.H. Ltd, to our field staff whose efforts will be well known by all participants, to the Chairmen of sessions who actually controlled the running of the Symposium, and to the Rapporteurs. There would have been no Symposium on the practical aspects of the transfer of controlled atmosphere and fumigation technology into commercial use, especially on the scale we have seen, had the facilities not been made available and the costs underwritten. “The influence of this event will be felt in grain storage activities throughout the world for many years to come” is a statement made by a speaker at a Stored Grain Protectants Conference. Therefore, I find it difficult to find words sufficient to express the degree of attribute deserved to our General Manager Mr. Jim Green and our Board of Directors for their full support both during the Symposium and the years leading up to it. A special recognition is also well deserved for the efforts of Alan Grey and his willing assistance in the organising and the conduct of the Symposium and in the compilation of this manual of proceedings.

The International Steering Committee, who also formed the body of Editors, who assisted from all points of the Compass before, during and after the Symposium, were Ed Jay U.S.D.A., Ed Bond Canada Agriculture, David Calverley T.D.R.I., Geoff Corbett F.A.O., Shlomo Navarro A.R.O., Jonathan Banks C.S.l.R.O.

A particular thank to Jonathan Banks for his dedication to his work and for his support and guidance over a number of years. It was most unfortunate that JINDRICH SHEJBAL was unable to attend this follow up to his original work. I know he would have liked to have been with us.

I have maintained the order of events in this manual of proceedings as they occurred during the period from 11th to the 22nd April 1983.

Perth, Western Australia, April 1984.     B.E. RIPP

Session 1


Progress in the Use of Controlled Atmospheres in Actual Field Situations in the United States.
Edward Jay & Robert D’Orazio
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An Overview of the Present State of Controlled Atmosphere Storage of Grain in China.
Lu Qianyu
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Plant Quarantine and Fumigation of Imported Cereals in Japan.
H. Akiyama
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Session 2


Multiple and Cross-Resistance Characteristics in Phosphine- Resistant Strains of Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribohum castaneum.
F. I. Attia
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Commercial Potential of Methyl Bromide and Carbon Dioxide Mixtures for Disinfesting Grain.
P. Williams, W. Minett, P. Savage, A.D. Wilson, S.A. Buchanan and V. Guiffre
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Effects of Oxygen on the Toxicity of Carbon Dioxide to Storage Insects.
C.H. Bell
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Response of Several Species of 1nsects to Mixtures of Phosphine and Carbon Dioxide.
J. Desmarchelier and R. Wohlgemuth
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Session 3


Pilot Scale Experiments on Half-Wet Maize Storage Under Airtight Conditions: Microbiological and Technological Aspects.
D. Richard-Ivlolard, B. Cahagnier and J.L. Multon
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Storage of Malting Barley (cv. Clipped) in a Nitrogen Atmosphere.
T.J. Moor
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The Use of Carbon Dioxide for Quality Preservation in Small Sheeted Bag Stacks.
P.C. Annis and J. van Someren Greve
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Session 4


The Practical Side of Silo Sealing.
W. Woodcock
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Polyurethane Foam for Sealing Grain Storages.
I. Alexander
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Effective Sealants for Existing Storages From Floor to Roof.
W. Glet
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Silo Sealing with Envelon.
E. R. Sutherland and G. Thomas
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The Properties of Various. Sealing Membranes and Coatings Used for Controlled Atmosphere Grain Stores.
D.J. Lloyd
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Construction and Operational Problems Arising in Sealing Large Capacity Horizontal Storages.
C. O’Neil
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Engineering Aspects to be Incorporated into Design of New Storages and Modification of Existing Storages for Controlled Atmosphere.
D.M. Ellis
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Design of Fumigable Stores in the Tropics.
D.J. Calverley
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Session 5


The Use in, and Recirculation of Carbon Dioxide in Welded Steel Bins in Victoria.
A.D. Wilson, S.A. Buchanan and A.G. Sharp
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Western Australian Studies of Sealing Horizontal Storages in 1980 to 1982.
C. Barry
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Modification of a very Large Grain Store for Controlled Atmosphere use.
B.E. Ripp
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Leak Detection in Sealed Grain Storages.
B.E. Ripp
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Importance of Processes of Natural Ventilation to Fumigation and Controlled Atmosphere Storages.
H.]. Banks and P .C. Annis
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Session 6


On Criteria for Success of Phosphine Fumigations Based on Observation of Gas Distribution Patterns.
H.]. Banks and P.C. Annis
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Practical Approaches to Purging Grain Storages with Carbon Dioxide in Australia.
V. Guiffre and A.I. Segal
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The “Detia Bag Blanket”, its Use and Application.
W. Friemel
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Ethyl Formate as a Safe General Fumigant.
M. Muthu, S. Rajendran, T .S. Krishnamurthy, K.S. Narasimhan, ].R. Rangaswamy, M. ]ayaram and S.K. Majumder
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Fumigation Trials with a Mixture of Methyl Bromide and Carbon Dioxide in Larger Type Silo Bins.
J.H. Viljoen, J.J. Coetzer and C.]. Vermaak
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The Use of Controlled Air to Increase the Effectiveness of Fumigation of Stationary Grain Storages.
J.S. Cook
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Phosphine Fumigations in Silo Bins.
F .B. Boland
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Safety: Grain Dust Control in Sealed Storages and Gas Clearing Techniques.
B.E. Ripp
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The Flammability Limit of Pure Phosphine-Air Mixtures at Atmospheric Pressure.
A.R. Green, S. Sheldon and H.J. Banks
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Techniques for Analysing Fumigants at Ultra-Low Concentration Levels.
E.J. Bond and T. Dumas
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Session 7


Cost Comparisons of Different Insect Control Measures.
G. Love
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Imperfections in Our Current Knowledge of Insect Biology as Related to their Response to Controlled Atmospheres.
E. Jay
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Where is C.A. Storage going in Developing Countries.
D.J. Calverley
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Current Methods and Potential Systems for Production of Controlled Atmospheres for Grain Storage.
R.J. Banks
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Session 9


Development and Future Trends in Bunker Storage.
C.J. Yates and R. Sticka
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Airtight Storage of Wheat in a P. V.C. Covered Bunker.
S. Navarro, E. Donahaye, Y. Kashanchi, V. Pisarev and O. Bulbul
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Session 10


The Development of a Continuous- Flow, Fluidized-Bed, High-Temperature Grain Disinfestation Process.
G.R. Thorpe, D.E. Evans and J.W. Sutherland
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Grain Refrigeration Trials in Australia.
T.F. Ghaly and G.R. Thorpe
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