2020, Winnipeg, Canada

Proceedings of the 11ᵗʰ International Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products, Winnipeg, Canada, 2020

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About The Winnipeg Conference


The International Conferences on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products (CAF) are the major international forums for reporting advances in research and development of gaseous treatments for the preservation of stored commodities. The conferences, which are held every four years, encompass the treatment of broad range of durable and other commodities held in storage utilizing controlled atmosphere or chemical fumigation for the control of pests. Over the years the conference objectives have been refined to report on advances in research and development and the current status of controlled atmosphere and fumigation for insect pests, microflora and quality control in stored products.

Treatment of the products such as cereal grains, oilseeds, legumes, root crops, dried fruits, nuts and vegetables, and other agricultural products including bulbs and flowers are covered by these conferences. However, the CAF conferences do not cover controlled atmosphere treatments for the quality preservation of fresh agricultural products.

The professional background for the CAF conference are:

  1. the need to ensure the continued use of phosphine against the pressures of increasing resistance to this valuable fumigant;
  2. the sustainable availability of novel MA technologies; and
  3. reports on new fumigants and among them are ethyl formate, ethane dinitrile and ozone.

The establishment of the International Steering Committee followed the first Symposium held in Rome in May 1980 organized by Assoreni and the first Coo operative Bulk Handling Limited and the Australian Grain Institute Incorporated. The second one, which included fumigation, was held in Perth, Western Australia in 1983. This second symposium was given the title “International Symposium on Controlled Atmospheres and Fumigation” (CAF). Then the CAF International Permanent Committee emerged from the International Steering Committee in 1983 in Perth, West Australia. Only in CAF 1996 in Cyprus the title of “International Conference on Controlled Atmospheres and Fumigation in Stored Products” was adopted. The Conferences after CAF Perth, Australia (1983) were in Singapore (1989); Winnipeg, Canada (1992); Nicosia, Cyprus (1996); Fresno, USA (2000); Gold Coast, Australia (2004); Chengdu, China (2008); Antalya, Turkey (2012); and New Delhi, India (2016).

This Conference is 11th in the series of the International Conferences on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products (CAF2020), and originally planned to be held in Winnipeg, Canada, from August 23 to 28, 2020. But due to Covid-19 global pandemic, the CAF2020 was postponed to 2021; however, the name “CAF2020” was kept. Local Organizing Committee has hoped that the CAF2020 will be held in person but global pandemic prevented this. CAF2020 is being held virtually on August 23 to 27, 2021 organized by the Local Organizing Committee including members from the CAF International Permanent Committee under the leadership of Dr. Digvir S. Jayas. The Local Organizing Committee members are from the University of Manitoba, Agriculture of Agri-Food Canada, and Canadian Grain Commission, Canada. Since CAF2020 is being held virtually, a request was raised by the members of the Local CAF Conference Organizing Committee in Canada to hold in person meeting in Winnipeg in 2024. That means that the Local CAF Conference Organizing Committee in Canada will be responsible for the virtual conference in 2021 and in person conference in 2024. The CAF Conference Local Organizing Committee has done a great job in organizing the virtual conference and producing high quality refereed proceedings.

The presentations of CAF2020 conference are organized in the following sessions:

  1. Biological Response to Fumigants,
  2. Engineering and Modeling of Fumigants,
  3. Insect Resistance to Fumigants,
  4. Hermetic Storage,
  5. Controlled Atmospheres,
  6. Quarantine and Alternatives to Methyl Bromide,
  7. Alternate Fumigants,
  8. Bio-fumigants,
  9. Alternative Approaches,
  10. Alternative Fumigants,
  11. Fumigation Overview.

The proceedings include 4 full papers and 4 abstracts. The technical support provided by Ms. Judith Mate in preparation of the book of proceedings is greatly appreciated.

Prof. Dr. Shlomo Navarro Chair, CAF International Conferences Permanent Committee
Prof. Dr. Digvir S. Jayas Secretary, CAF International Conferences Permanent Committee and Chair, CAF2020 Local Organizing Committee
Prof. Dr. Fuji Jian Secretary, CAF2020 Local Organizing Committee

Session 1

Biological Response to Fumigants

Delayed mortality, resistance and the “sweet spot”: the good, the bad and the ugly in phosphine fumigationss.
Christos G Athanassiou, Evagelia Lampiri, Paraskevi Agrafioti
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Phosphine fumigation strategies for effective control of bruchid pests.
Manoj K Nayak, Gregory J Daglish, Rajeswaran Jagadeesan, Hervoika Pavic, Philip R Burril
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Evaluation of fungicidal action of four products on external fungal biota of grains.
Estefanía Alvarez, Marcela Leandro Cardoso, Ricardo Bartosik, Claudia Castellari, Diego de la Torre, Ignacio Erreguerena, Bernadette Abadía
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Phosphine fumigation of stored turmeric in India.
Ujjwal Kumar
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Research and application progress of controlling stored-grain insects by sulfuryl fluoride.
Dandan Li, Pengfei Li, Xiaoping Yan, Daolin Guo
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Rapid detection of phosphine resistance in Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) from China using tetra-primer ARMS-PCR.
Yujie Lu, Chenguang Zhang, Zhenyan Wang, Xiaoping Yan, Robert N Emery
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Study on the control of DON-producing fusarium by fumigation in wheat.
Jin Wang, Shuai Chen, Yuxi Gu, Li Li, Youjun Jiang, Jinying Chen
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Exposure time prediction of N2 treatment based on behavior and mortality of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) adults monitored by camera at different temperatures.
Dianxuan Wang, Yilin Huang, Chunqi Bai, Jianhua Lu, Fuji Jian
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Phosphine fumigation: quo vadis?
Robert Francis Ryan
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Potential of dosimeter tubes for monitoring phosphine fumigations.
Daniel Brabec, James Campbell, Frank Arthur, William Morrison
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Evaluation of railcar fumigations during transportation.
James F Campbell, Daniel Brabec, Frank H Arthur
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Insecticidal effect of phosphine on eggs of the khapra beetle Evagelia Lampiri.
Christos G Athanassiou
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It all started with a kit – the Detia Degesch phosphine tolerance test and new data in the field of phosphine fumigation.
Carolin Götze, Renate Steuerwald, Paraskevi Agrafioti, Gerhard K Jakob, Christos G Athanassiou
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Session 2

Engineering and Modelling of Fumigants

Affordable sealing of multiple grain storages – manifolded for CLF.
Ronald T Noyes
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Predicting the concentration of phosphine and insect mortality with Computational Fluid Dynamics; Validation with field trials in cylindrical grain silos and shipping containers.
Paraskevi Agrafioti, Efstathios Kaloudis, Vasilis Sotiroudas, Sotiris Bantas, Christos G. Athanassiou
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Integrated CFD-based on-farm stored grain aeration model to predict the fan hours and investigate factors affecting the cooling potential.
Shubham S Panigrahi, Chandra B Singh, John M. Fielke
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Phosphine distribution patterns during fumigation in temporarily-sealed steel silos.
Mark E Casada, Kaliramesh Siliveru, Frank Arthur, Dan Brabec, James Campbell, Ronaldo Maghirang, Dirk Maier, Taylor  Conley, Carol Jones
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A comparative study of phosphine distribution using two application methods with 30,000 gas concentration measurements.
Valérie Ducom, F. Simioni, D. Mercadal, D. Busson
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Understanding insect movement behavior in chickpea flour using X-ray microcomputed tomography.
Chaudhry Muhammad Mudassir Arif, Nadimi Mohammad, Hervet Vincent, Paliwal Jitendra
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Determination of phosphine sorption isotherm in hard red winter wheat.
Rañia Marie E Buenavista, Mark E Casada, Kaliramesh Siliveru
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Implications of dockage and foreign material distribution for fumigation and control atmosphere storage in grain bins.
Fuji Jian, Digvir S Jayas
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Carbon dioxide movement monitoring in a lab-scale grain bin.
RP Ramachandran, Thiruppathi Senthilkumar, Chandra B Singh
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Understanding pore structures in bulk grain for fumigation.
Qiang Zhang
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Characterizing engineering properties of hermetic storage bag technology for standards development.
Ma Cristine Concepcion D Ignacio, Dirk E Maier
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A game changer: synthetic amorphous silica for protection of stored grain pest.
Manjree Agarwal, Yonglin Ren
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Design of an experimental setup to evaluate movement of adult insects in stored wheat.
Vimala S K Bharathi, Fuji Jian, Digvir S Jayas, Jason Morrison
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Session 3

Insect Resistance to Fumigants

First report of strong phosphine resistance in stored grain insects in far northern region of Australia.
Manoj K Nayak, Gregory J Daglish, Rajeswaran Jagadeesan, Hervoika Pavic, Virgin T. Singarayan, Nisa S Nath, Paul R Ebert
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Safety education – critical for grain fumigators.
Edmond L Bonjour, Carol L Jones
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Evaluation of ethyl formate for management of both resistant and susceptible strains of Cryptolestes pusillus and Cryptolestes ferrugineus.
Chunyuan Gu, Manjree Agarwal, YongLin Ren
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Is phosphine or its derivatives responsible for mortality of stored product insects?
Xin Du, Tao Liu, Yonglin Ren
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Does strong resistance to phosphine (PH) incur biological cost in Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens): A two-way approach in dissecting the fitness cost?
Virgine T Singaryan, Rajeswaran Jagadeesan, David I Schlipalius, Manoj K Nayak, Paul R Ebert, Gregory J Daglish
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Managing genetic resistance to phosphine in stored grain pests: an integrated strategy ensuring grain biosecurity and market access.
Rajeswaran Jagadeesan, Manoj Kumar Nayak, Gregory John Daglish, Virgine Tenshia Singarayan, Mohankumar Subbarayalu, Subramanian Sabtharishi and Paul Richert Ebert
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Status of phosphine resistance of Tribolium castaneum in Indonesia.
Sri Widayanti, Idham Sakti Harahap, Trijanti A Widinni Asnan, Herni Widhiastuti
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Session 4

Hermetic Storage

Hermetic storage: under vacuum, under ambient pressure in bags, or in metal containers – what is most suitable?
Cornel Adler
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Modified atmospheres in paddy rice hermetic storage are biogenerated according to different mechanisms in Portugal and Mozambique.
Luis Goulao, Rafael Nguenha, Maria Otilia Carvalho
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Evaluation of storage of sunflower. pellets in silo bags.
Enrique Behr, Leandro Cardoso, Ricardo Bartosik, Facundo Marcos Valle, Diego de la Torre, Hernán Taher, Gisele Maciel
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Predicting oxygen depletion during grain storage using hermetic bag technology.
Ma Cristine Concepcion D Ignacio, Dirk E Maier
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Evaluation of hermetic bag technology to preserve shea nuts in rural Ghana.
George Obeng-Akrofi, Dirk E Maier, Wendy S White, Joseph O Akowuah, Ricardo Bartosik, Leandro Cardoso
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Assessing the viability of new deltamethrin treated hermetic storage bags in artificially infested wheat.
Deanna S Scheff, Georgia V Baliota, Michael J Domingue, Georgina V Bingham, William R Morrison III, Christos G Athanassiou
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Comparative survival of Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under large-scale hermetic grain storage conditions.
Alex A Chigoverah, Brighton M Mvumi
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Session 5

Controlled Atmospheres

Testing of an inexpensive modified atmosphere chamber for small farmers using soaked grain as oxygen scavenger.
Ricardo Bartosik, Leandro Cardoso, Diego de la Torre, Bernadette Abadía, María Celia Tulli, Hernán Taher, Gisele Maciel
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Efficacy of controlling two stored cashew nutinsects in 1% O and 99% N at 43oC.
Hagit Navarro, Shlomo Navarro
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Delivery and adoption of nitrogen technology for the management of grain storage pests and grain quality.
YongLin Ren, Manjree Agarwal, James Newman, Shuting Pan, Junxi Li, Yu Xiao
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Low oxygen concentration hinders the occurrence of cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne, under nitrogen-controlled atmosphere storage system.
Song Song, Jian Du, Bo Hu, Fenyu Yang, Jizhen Song, Guiyao Wang
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Efficacy of Bio-CO as a non-chemical fumigant on pest control in wheat storage.
Himanshu Kumar, VK Vijay, PMV Subbarao
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Changes in quality of rice grains after storing in controlled nitrogen atmosphere.
Yu Jie, Tianyu Shi, Dong Yang, Junyi Jiang, Qianqian Li, Wenya Bi
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Effect of carbon dioxide sorption in packaged chickpeas on the susceptibility to modified atmospheres of Rhyzopertha dominica and Callosobruchus chinensis.
Jordi Riudavets, Rey D Iturralde-García, Cristina Castañé, Raquel Bourne, Francisco J Wong-Corral
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Session 6

Quarantine and Alternatives to Methyl Bromide

Heat treatment: an effective, viable alternative to methyl bromide for
controlling stored product insects in food processing facilities.
Raj Hulasare
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Phosphine as methyl bromide alternative for QPS treatment of food grains in India.
Sumitra Arora, J Stanley, Naveenkumar Patil, Totan Adak, Chitra Srivastava, JP Singh, Mayabini Jena, RS Ramya, Omprakash Navik, PP Asher, Falguni Patel, Montu Patel, J.P. Gupta
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New diagnostic tool for Trogoderma species: visible near infrared hyperspectral (VNIH) technique coupled with machine learning.
Manjree Agarwal, Thamer Al-Shuwaili, Kevin Wong, Yonglin Ren
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Insecticidal effect of phosphine in different life stages of the khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium.
Marina Gourgouta, Paraskevi Agrafioti, Christos G Athanassiou
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Early-warning detection protocol of khapra beetle (Trogoderma granarium Everts) and other insect pests associated with stored grains in Portugal – preliminary results.
Sonia Duarte, Graça Barros, Luísa Carvalho, Orlando Guerreiro, Miguel Mourato, Maria Otília Carvalho
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Efficacy of propylene oxide as a postharvest fumigant for fresh citrus pest disinfestation and its impact on citrus fruit quality.
Sandipa G Gautam, David Obenl, Spencer Walse, Elizabeth E. Grafton-Cardwell
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Recent advances in methyl bromide alternatives for fresh fruit at USDA-ARS.
Spencer S Walse
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Session 7

Alternate Fumigants

Potential of monitoring carbon dioxide to detect insect infestation in a wheat bulk.
Shlomo Navarro, Hagit Navarro, Nadav Inbari
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Study on using synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) as phosphine resistance breaker.
Xin Du, Yonglin Ren
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Age-stage, two-sex life tables and predation analyses of the predatory mite Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans at different temperatures.
Weiwei Sun, Liyuan Xia, Miao Cui, Qing Yu, Yang Cao, Yi Wu
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Killing stored grain pests by radio frequency and its effect on grain quality.
Miao Cui, Weiwei Sun, Liyuan Xia, Zhongming Wang, Yang Cao, Yi Wu
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Characterization and measurement of semiochemicals for management of stored product pests.
Zachary A Kawagoe, Spencer S Walse
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Effect of Callosobruchus maculatus infestation on nutritional parameters of Urad (Vigna mungo) beans.
Umesh Chandra Sharma, Santosh Satya, P Hariprasad
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Changes in RH and wet bulb temperature of an ndica paddy bulk in a large warehouse in southeast China.
Xingjun Li, Song Zheng, Huifa Zhao, Lisi Tao, Cunzhan Fan, Wenya Bi, Tianyu Shi
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Session 8


In-transit fumigation of shipping containers with ethyl formate + nitrogen during full travel on road and on sea.
YongLin Ren, E. Marco Coetzee, Xin Du, Melissa Thomas, Johann van der Merwe,
Simon J McKirdy
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Attractiveness of Matthiola incana (L.) R. Br. powder and its volatile compounds to Lasioderma serricorne.
Yanzhen Zhao, Jiaqin Xi, Yu-e Li, Hongxu Dong, Jizhen Song
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Acute toxicity of two bio-fumigants against larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).
Samuel Adelani Babarinde, Adebukola Taofikat Ottun, Oladele Abiodun Olaniran, Timothy Abiodun Adebayo, Abosede Elizabeth Oderinde, Adeola Foluke Odewole, Fatai Olaitan Alao
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Chemical constituents and insecticidal activity of essential oils against three stored product beetles in stored wheat.
Ranjeet Kumar, P S Pandey, S N Tiwari
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Evaluation of effect of ozone on two species of stored grain insects Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica and grain quality.
Yu Xiao, Manjree Agarwal, Yonglin Ren
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Fumigant toxicity of garlic essential oil with the combined effect of ozone gas and determination of phytochemical residues from the treated rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae and wheat grains.
Urvashi Sahu, Sivakumar Sreevathsan, Sandeep N Mudliar, S. Ezhil Vendan
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Ethyl formate: review of a rapid-acting fumigant.
Robert Ryan, Bernard C Dominiak
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Session 9

Alternative Approaches

Low temperature as an alternative to fumigation: An example using Acanthoscelides obtectus.
Kimberly D Hamilton, Paul G Fields, Vincent AD Hervet, Jitendra Paliwal, Mohammad Nadimi
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Effectiveness of Cryonite system in treatment of stored product insects.
Kelsey Jones, Whitney Morse, Noel White, Paul Fields
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Identification and functional analysis of cytochrome P450 CYP346 family genes associated with phosphine resistance in Tribolium castaneum.
Kangxu Wang, Manwen Liu, Yazhou Wang, Wei Song, Peian Tang
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Comprehensive evaluation of direct aeration combined with closed internal circular ventilation system in squat silos.
Pengfei Xiang, Guohua Li, Xiuxin Jin, Weizhong Zhang, Minghan Ye, Wenbo Xu, Yanyu Li
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Efficacy of food grade synthetic amorphous silica in small farms.
Huiyi Zhao, Hongqing Zhang, Yang Cao, Yanyu Li
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Study on fumigation of tobacco lamina with sulfuryl fluoride at low temperatures.
Guanghai Wu, Yanzhen Zhao, Junxiang Zheng, Jiaqin Xi
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Session 10

Alternative Fumigants

Nitric oxide fumigation for postharvest control of pests and pathogens.
Yong-Biao Liu, Sookyung Oh, Xiangbing Yang
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Results of fumigation of fresh flowers – QuickPHlo – RTM phosphine generator.
Pushpaksen P Asher, Falguni R Patel
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Mixed fumigation using sulfuryl fluoride and carbon dioxide to tobacco lamina.
Jiaqin Xi, Yanzhen Zhao, Yu-e Li, Hongxu Dong, Jianqiang Wang, Xican Gu, Jizhen Song
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The application of ethyl formate for the treatment of stored grain insect pests.
Hamish L McKirdy, Simon J McKirdy, YongLin Ren
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Ethanedinitrile (EDN) – a new broad-spectrum fumigant for biosecurity applications.
Swaminathan Thalavaisundaram
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Dose-response of selected stored product insects to ozone treated on various surface materials.
Rizana M Mahroof, Sunil Paudel
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Session 11

Fumigation Overview

Management of insects in Canada – tatus update.
Digvir S Jayas, Fuji Jian, Blaine Timlick
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Alternatives to the use of phosphine fumigation in Ghana.
Charles Adarkwah, Edna Baffoe-Bonnie, Doris Brese, Lambert Amewu Kwakudua, Collins Tay, Prudence Attipoe, Henry Ofosuhene Sintim, William Jonfia-Essien
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Capacity building of smallholder farmers on postharvest management of grain crops using SuperGrainBags in Malawi.
Alex Abraham Chigoverah, Philippe Villers
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Grain storage systems and insect management in Punjab (north India).
Navnath S Indore, P N Guru, Dhritiman Saha, Digvir S Jayas
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Survival of 10 stored product insects on canola.
Vincent AD Hervet; Paul G Fields, Kelsey L Jones, Fuji Jian
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Three-dimensional movement detection of Tribolium castaneum and Sitophilus zeamais in wheat flour using X-ray micro computed tomography.
Kanishk Paliwal, Mohammad Nadimi, Chyngyz Erkinbaev
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